Tips to Create Perfect Black & White Photos in Adobe Photoshop

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May 7, 2021
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  • #1
There are multiple methods for turning a color image into a black and white one in Adobe Photoshop. The problem is, some of those methods are better than others. Off the top of my head, I can think of one such method as being around pretty much forever. Another one has been around for a while and the last is the best and newest. Whichever process you choose, you’ll end up with a photo that has had the color removed from it. Whether or not that colorless image looks any good is another question. Let’s just say that some black and white photographs look better then other black and white photographs after they’ve been processed.

In today’s post, I’m going to walk you through the use of three tools that can strip the color from a photo in Adobe Photoshop. The tools range from lousy to great. After I demonstrate how to get rid of your photo’s color, I’ll explain how you can adjust the look of the color that was in the photo. I’ll also show you how you can do this non-destructively.

I’ve written a few posts on the “black and white” topic previously. If memory serves, these posts had to do with Camera Raw and Lightroom. While both of these applications would be the first place I would look to do something like this, Photoshop shouldn’t be counted out. It’s a powerhouse and should be considered as such.

Creating Black & White Photos in Adobe Camera Raw

How To Enhance Black & White Portraits in Adobe Camera Raw

Creating an Awesome Black & White Photo in Adobe Lightroom

Demo Photo​

For this post, I needed to use a photo that has a decent range of color in it. If I chose something that was washed out (low saturation), my examples wouldn’t work well. If I chose something that was skewed towards one color, that wouldn’t work well either. Because of this requirement, I thought that by using something I’ve already taken advantage of in the past, the examples I set forth would be the best possible. Take a look at what I’m referring to.


As you can see, in this image, we’ve got some greens, blues, yellows, oranges and a few others. This will be perfect later on when we start breaking these colors down.

Turning an Image Grayscale​

The very first and probably the most simple method for removing color from an image is to just go ahead and change the color mode of the file in question. To do this, go up to the Image > Mode > Grayscale menu item and click.


Once I do this, I’ll receive a message prompting me to make a decision. Do I really want to discard this file’s color information?


If yes, hit the Discard button and watch as the color uniformly disappears from the photograph.


This is fine if you want a grayscale image.

While this looks like a good solution, there are a few issues with it. First, what if I want to drag a color photo into this workspace so I can look at the black and white version versus the color version? Let me try that now.


Oh wait, both layers are black and white. I wanted one to be color. It was when I dragged it over. What’s going on? Well, when I clicked the menu item I mentioned above, I changed the entire file’s color mode, not just the one layer’s. Because of this, any additional layer I create or file I bring into this one will also be desaturated. That’s not good.

Also, what if I want to adjust the luminance of one or two particular colors. Can I do that while using this method? No, I can’t. That’s not good either.

Finally, what if I want to get rid of the desaturation and go back to the color version after I do some work to this file. Can I do that? No, I can’t. The reason for this is that the change I made is considered “destructive.” This means that once it’s done, it’s done. That’s it and there’s no going back. This is probably the worst of all. There has to be a better way.

Adjusting to Black & White​

The next method for creating a black and white image in Adobe Photoshop is definitely a step up from the last. This time, we’ll have the ability to adjust the separate colors before making any sort of commitment.

To kick things off, I’ll head up to the Image > Adjustments > Black & White menu item and click.


Once I do that, the Black & White dialog box will appear. The photo also gets desaturated.


Having this Black & White adjustment dialog is crucial to altering the photo so it has some kick to it when it’s finished. Regular desaturated photos are oftentimes very flat and unappealing. Altering the luminance, color by color, can really transform the contrast and depth of a photo so it looks good.

Okay, let’s go down the list of pros and cons of using this method to convert a color photo to grayscale. First, does the entire file get converted to black and white or does just the one layer we’re attempting to alter? Let’s drag a copy of the photo in and see.


Perfect. The layer I dragged into the file stayed color, which means that the entire file didn’t get converted. Only the one layer did. That’s a very good thing.

Next, can I adjust the intensity of the colors in the photo? Well, I already told you that you can do that before committing to the change. That’s good, but what about going back and making further changes? Unfortunately, once this alteration has been made, we’re stuck with it. We can’t go back and make further edits. That’s not really good at all. This means the the change we made is destructive.

Finally, what if I wanted to get rid of the desaturation all together? Can I do that? Can I go back to the original? Nope, I can’t do that either. Again, the change I just made is permanent.

So, while this method is better than the last, it still reminds me of the way Photoshop used to be about 10 years ago. Fairly primitive. Let’s talk about the final and best method.

Black & White Adjustment Layer​

It appears that Adobe worked out all the kinks when they came up with adjustment layers. This final method is surely the best and I’ll explain exactly why below.

To remove the color from the demo image, I’ll head up to the Adjustments panel and click the Black & White icon. When I do that, a new adjustment layer will appear in the Layers panel and the Properties panel for this adjustment will pop open.


What’s really cool about this adjustment, as with other adjustments, is that it’s got some pretty neat presets. If I click on the Preset drop-down box, I’ll find about 13 options for me to choose from. Each option pushes the color sliders to different values, creating a different look for the photo. In this example, I clicked on the High Contrast Red Filter, which increased the red, orange and yellow values and reduced the greens, cyans and blues. Changing these values creates a lot of contrast in this particular photo. If the photo was of a red desert or a sunset or something like that, this option would have had the opposite effect.


Here’s the output of the photo.


Now, so far, I changed the color photo to a black and white one and then changed the values of the specific colors of the photo, which resulted in an image with more contrast. The question is, can I get rid of the black and white attributes and bring my photo back to its original colored state? Why yes I can. All I would have to do to accomplish this is to delete the adjustment layer in the Layers panel. I would do this by selecting the layer and then clicking on the trash can down at the bottom of the panel. Or, I could click and drag the layer to the trash can icon and drop it there.

Also, what if I wanted to further edit the color values once I closed the Properties panel? Could I edit the values over and over and over again? Why yes I can. To do so, I would simply double-click on the adjustment layer thumbnail, which would open the Properties panel once again for further editing. All the earlier changes would still be live and set on the sliders, right where I left them.

The best part of the whole thing is that when using adjustment layers, they only affect the layers that are below them in the Layers panel. If I didn’t want a specific layer to be affected by this adjustment, all I would need to do is be sure that layer was higher than the adjustment layer. It seems that these types of layers have incredible flexibility and are non-destructive. Not a bad deal.

Customizing the Preset​

Just because I chose a preset, that doesn’t mean that I can’t continue adjusting the image by pushing the individual sliders manually. Also, I didn’t need to choose a preset at all. I could have jumped right into pushing the sliders in the beginning. The only issue with doing this is that once the image goes grayscale, it’s tough to know which color slider to push. That’s why the fine folks at Adobe created the Targeted Adjustment Tool.

If I click the icon that has a picture of a small hand in it, I can activate the tool.


Once the tool is activated, I can move my mouse over any area of the photo, click and drag to the left or the right. Dragging to the left will darken the area (the color in the entire photo) and dragging to the right will lighten that color.

As an example, I’ll use the Targeted Adjustment Tool to brighten up the yellows in the image. Since I already know the lines in the road are yellow, I’ll click on one of them and drag all the way to the right.


In the screenshot above, you can see that the yellow color slider is now pushed all the way to the right and the yellows in the photo are very light. I can do this same thing with virtually any color in the photo. The tool is quite versatile.

Undoing the Modifications​

If I went too far and want to start over or if I really just want to begin again for another reason, I can click the Reset icon at the bottom of the Properties panel.


If I roll over this icon, a small message that says Reset Adjustment to Defaults will appear.

Lessening the Grayscale​

Oftentimes, editors don’t want to go full out black and white. Instead, they want to mute the original colors that are in the photo while adding some nice contrast to certain areas. While there are many ways editors can go about getting this done, following the instructions I gave above is a common one. That, and then reducing the opacity of the adjustment layer to a desirable level. I’ll show you how to reduce the opacity below.

Since everything else is finished, all I have to do is to reduce the opacity to, say, 75%. To get this done, I’ll head over to the Layers panel and click the Opacity drop-down. From there, I can drag the slider to the left until it says 75%. Alternatively, I can just type that value into the drop-down box and press the Enter key on my keyboard to apply the change.


Once that’s finished, I can call the project complete.


What’s even better than this? If I had enhanced the photo in Camera Raw before I even started. That way, there would be more color and vibrancy to work with. To learn how to make a photo look a heck of a lot better than its original version, please read through the post below.

How To Make A Photo “Pop” With Adobe Camera Raw


I hope I clearly explained the multiple methods for going about making a photograph black and white in Adobe Photoshop. If you have any questions or concerns, please let me know in the comment section below. Thanks for reading!


May 7, 2021
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  • #2

Adding Black & White Drama to a Photo in Adobe Photoshop​

A primary goal with photography and photo editing is to add drama to an existing scene. This is why so many of us look to lighting and position to make things look so much better when we’re in the field. When we’re in front of the computer editing the shots we’ve taken, it’s all about adding or subtracting contrast, color and sharpness or blur. Basically, we want to make our photos pop and we’ll do what we need to do to make that happen.

In today’s post, I’m going to demonstrate how to add some additional drama to an already great shot. To start out, we know that converting a color photo to black and white completely changes the feel of the image. Then, if we can add some focal points in the photo by blurring other, no so important, areas, so much the better. Finally, adding some grain to a photo oftentimes gives it a certain feel. The end result should be totally different in many respects. The image will have gone from an accurate flat representation of what exists in reality to something with much more depth and more of what’s in someone’s imagination. That’s the look we want.

The Original Photo​

This is the original photo. It’s looks pretty good, in my opinion. The issue with it is that it’s somewhat boring. There’s no feeling to it. As I mentioned above, it’s really just a picture of what’s going on; an antique piece of machinery in an empty factory. It doesn’t tell a story. I’d like to change that.


In the next few steps, I’ll see if I can add some life to this photo.

Converting to a Smart Object​

Since I’ll be using Camera Raw to perform some edits to this photo, I’ll need to convert the image to a Smart Object. I already have this image opened up in Photoshop, so making the conversion is very simple. All I need to do is to right-click on the photo layer in the Layers panel and, from the menu that appears, click on Convert to Smart Object.


What are Smart Objects in Adobe Photoshop?

Once I click this menu item, I’ll see that the layer is no longer considered the Background layer and that it now has the small Smart Object icon in the lower right corner of the layer thumbnail.

Adjusting the Tone & Converting to Black & White​

Now that the image is a Smart Object, I can easily pass it over to Camera Raw for some editing. The reason I’d like to use Camera Raw is because I already have a preset over there that will take care of most of my tonal corrections. I can also make the black and white conversion there as well; that tool is quite powerful.

To launch this image into Camera Raw for editing, I’ll need to click the Filter > Camera Raw Filter menu item in Photoshop.


Once I do that, Camera Raw will open up in its own window.


Once I’m in Camera Raw, I’ll click on the Presets tab and then I’ll click on my saved preset.

How To Make A Photo “Pop” With Adobe Camera Raw

Creating Presets in Adobe Camera Raw & Applying Them via Bridge

This is what the output will look like after I apply my go-to preset.


After I do that, I’ll click over into the HSL/Grayscale panel inside of Camera Raw and check the Convert to Grayscale box. Here’s the output after I do that.


Creating Black & White Photos in Adobe Camera Raw

That looks pretty good, but I’d like to make one more change while I’m still in Camera Raw. The image looks a little bright to me and that brightness isn’t offering the somber feel that I’m going for. I’ll compensate for this by heading into the Basic panel and pushing the Exposure slider to the left a bit. Doing this should darken and add some depth to the photo. I’ll also add some Contrast and Clarity in Camera Raw as well. Pushing these two sliders almost all the way to their limits should give me the eerie, abandoned look I want.


And here’s the image after all those changes have been applied.


To apply the changes and to jump the image back to Photoshop, I’ll head down to the lower right corner of Camera Raw and click the OK button.

Adding Some Grain to the Image​

The next effect I’d like to add to this photo is to make it look old and haunted. To get this effect, I’ll use the Noise filter in Photoshop. I’ll head up to the Filter > Noise > Add Noise Menu item and click.


When I do this, the Add Noise dialog box will appear.


I’ll set the Amount slider to 20% and I’ll be sure to select the Gaussian and Monochromatic options. Gaussian is a nice even distribution of grain and since this is already a grayscale image, the Monochromatic option seems to make sense. To apply this filter, I’ll click the OK button.

After this is finished, I’ll notice there are a few Smart Filters applied to the layer in the Layers panel. The first one is the Add Noise filter and the second is the Camera Raw Filter.


Since the Add Noise filter is somewhat overwhelming, I can make that one less intrusive by applying a blend mode to only the noise filter. To accomplish this, I’ll double-click on the small icon that’s located on the right side of the Add Noise filter layer in the Layers panel. Doing this will open the Blending Options dialog box. I’ll select Soft Light from the drop-down menu and then click OK to apply this blend mode. Remember, only the Add Noise filter layer will have this blend mode to it. Not any other layers.


Just so you know, if you’re making your way through a project similar to this, you can also apply a blending option to the Camera Raw Filter layer as well. That might offer some cool effects. Give it a try.

Adding Some Blur​

The final effect I’d like to add to this image is some blur. I already know what I want too. I’d like to see an oval that’s clear and have everything else sort of blurry. Not crazy blurry, but just enough to distinguish the machine in the foreground from everything else in the background. To achieve this look, I’ll go back up to the top menu and select the Filter > Blur Gallery > Iris Blur menu item.


When I do this, an entirely new panel will open that includes all the iris blur options. I’ll make my selections and when I think the image looks good, I’ll click the OK button up in the top options bar.

Using Blur Gallery for Creative Blurring Effects in Adobe Photoshop


If you’re interested in the specifics of how to add a blur effect to a photo, be sure to click through the link above the previous screenshot. The details are all in that post.

Now let’s take a look at the final edited photo.


I’d say that look pretty good. The image definitely tells a story now. There were a lot of different ways I could have taken this and the best part of the entire project is that I can still make any change I want. Since I started this project off by transforming the photo into a Smart Object, all I need to do is double-click on any Smart Filter to open the related editing box. I can save this file out as a Photoshop file and work on it and make changes to it any time I want. I edited it in a completely non-destructive manner.

Here’s a before and after shot for you.


The before shot looks like it was taken on some random Wednesday afternoon, while the after shot looks like it was taken on Halloween during a horror film. Mission accomplished.

I hope I clearly demonstrated how to go about using Smart Filters to make edits to a photo in Photoshop. If you have any questions or concerns regarding this post, please leave them in the comment section down below. Thanks for reading!

COMMENT: Beautiful image! Can I ask two separate camera raw questions ( I am using CS6). 1) let’s say I open five similar photos in adobe camera raw. I work on the first image and get it to where I like it. Can I apply everything I did to that first image to the subsequent photos? And if so how? Or do I need to somehow create and save an ACR preset? 2) i’m sure I am doing this wrong but I cannot figure out how to create a preset (set of steps) and save it for later use in adobe camera raw in CS6. Can you advise?

COMMENT: Thank you! To answer your first question, I’ll point you to two different posts I wrote in the past. The first one deals with how to edit multiple images simultaneously in Camera Raw and the second post deals with how to open multiple images into Camera Raw, but edit them one at a time. I think these will help you out.

How To Edit More Than One Photo at a Time in Adobe Camera Raw

Independently Editing Multiple Images in Adobe Camera Raw

I don’t think CS6 has the capability to use Camera Raw as a filter once inside Photoshop, so you’ll need to do any editing in Camera Raw first and then move the images into Photoshop from there. If you follow this workflow, you should be able to accomplish the same thing.

As far as your second question, have you read this post? The top section describes how to create a preset. It’s been a while since I have used CS6, so I’m not sure about its capabilities. So much wasn’t available back then.


May 7, 2021
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  • #3

Creating an Artistic Black & White Photo in Adobe Photoshop​

I was messing around in Photoshop the other day and I ended up with a really cool take on an ordinary image. I thought I’d share the process I followed with you today. It was so simple and fast that I figured anyone could do it. All I used was adjustment layers, a filter and a blend mode. And what I got was something that I didn’t expect at all.

I played with a few different images and I’ve come to determine that what I did to this one is best applied to mechanical types of photos. Ones where a strong contrast and extreme variances won’t affect things negatively. Make no mistake, the photo output isn’t supposed to accentuate the ordinary; it’s actually supposed to lean towards the artistic side. So keep that in mind.

In today’s post, I’d like to walk through the process I followed while editing the demo photo in Adobe Photoshop. I’ll apply three different adjustment layers with different settings for each. Then, I’ll apply a blur filter and use a blend mode to temper things so that filter isn’t completely overwhelming. I think you’ll enjoy this one.

The Demo Photo​

I’ll be using a photo of an old typewriter today. This really is the mechanical look I was speaking of earlier.


Applying the Adjustment Layers​

To get the look I’m after, I’d like to first make the image black and white and then increase the contrast and lighten the shadows. For each of these tasks, there’s a preset already installed. That’s what makes these types of edits so easy; I don’t really have to think about anything.

Since the image is already opened in Photoshop, I’ll first right-click on the background image layer and choose the Convert to Smart Object menu item that appears. That will convert the regular layer to a Smart Object, which I’ll need later on.

After that, I’ll head up to the Adjustments panel and click on the Black & White icon to apply the first adjustment layer.


Once the layer is applied to the Layers panel, I’ll head up to the Presets drop-down in the Properties panel that appeared and I’ll choose the High Contrast Blue Filter option. Of course, you’ll need to choose whichever option looks best for your particular photo. In this case, this one looked good with mine.


The photo I’m working on is already taking shape nicely.


Next up, I’ll go back into the Adjustments panel, but this time, I’ll click on the Curves icon. Once the next adjustment layer appears in the Layers panel, I’ll go back into the Presets drop-down and select the Strong Contrast option. Doing this will elevate the artistic aspects of this edit.


And after that, I’ll head back into the Adjustments panel and I’ll click the Levels icon. Once the new adjustment layer appears in the Layers panel and the Properties panel for this adjustment opens, up, I’ll go back into the Presets drop-down one last time and this time, I’ll choose Lighten Shadows.


Let’s take a look at the photo now. There should be some more punch.


Yes, that’s looking very good.

Applying the Blur Filter & Blending Mode​

For this last part of the edit, I’m going to apply a Radial Blur. This blur application is the reason I originally converted the image layer to a Smart Object. Whenever applying any type of a filter in Photoshop, it’s always a good idea to apply that filter to a Smart Object. That way, you can go back and edit the filter if need be. There are also other options that become available, as you’ll see below. Namely blend modes.

Okay, to apply the blur, I’ll fist make sure the image layer is selected in the Layers panel. Then, I’ll go up to the top menu and select Filter > Blur > Radial Blur.


Once I do that, I’ll change some settings in the Radial Blur dialog box. I’ll change the Amount, choose Zoom from the Blur Method options and I’ll choose Good from the Quality options.


When I’m finished in there, I’ll click the OK button and this is what I’ll see:


Pretty crazy, right?

Let’s temper that effect down a bit. All I want is the least hint of a burst to overlay the image, so what I’ll need to do is apply an adjustment layer. First, let’s take a look at the Layers panel, just to see what’s going on over there.


As you can see, I now have the three adjustment layers and a Smart Filter. Also, if you’ll notice, I circled a small icon in the filter layer. This icon, if double-clicked, will open up a panel that controls the blending modes that are linked to the filter itself. This is the one I want to adjust, so, I’ll double-click on that small icon now.

After I double-click, the Blending Options dialog box will appear. Inside that box is a drop-down that holds all the blend modes. Since I messed around with this image earlier in the day, I already know that both Overlay and Soft Light work well. In this case, I’ll go with the Overlay option. Once I choose that in the drop-down, I’ll click the OK button to apply the blend mode to the filter.


And that will give me the final image.


That last filter and blend mode did a lot for the photo. It’s like it placed a layer of coolness over the entire thing.


I hope I clearly explained how you can use adjustment layers, filters and blending modes in Adobe Photoshop to bring out the artistic side of an image. If you have any questions regarding this post, please leave them in the comment section below. Thanks for reading!


May 7, 2021
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  • #4

Adding a Color Tint to a Black & White Adjustment Layer in Adobe Photoshop​

I’ve got tons of little adjustment layer tips for you to take advantage of in Adobe Photoshop. These are things that you might otherwise overlook, but are in plain sight. I’ll be sprinkling them in between posts here and there, but thought I’d start the process by sharing a tip for creating an interesting look over a black and white image. It’s super easy, so what I write shouldn’t be very long.

In today’s post, I’d like to walk through the very simple process of adding a Black & White adjustment layer to an image in Adobe Photoshop and then describe how to add and edit the color of a tint that will sit on top of the black and white. What I’ll demonstrate will completely alter the look of the photograph, so you can pretty much go for any mood you wish. I’ll purposely keep this post focused on the task at hand because I don’t want to confuse it with any other tips I intend on sharing later on.

Today’s Demo Photo​

Let’s see, what would I like to work with today? Hmmm…well, since I think I’ll be adding an orangish tint, I’d like to go with something antiquey or mechanical looking. Ah, I’ve got it. I think some hanging pocket watches would be perfect for what I’d like to show. Check them out.


Adding the Adjustment Layer​

Okay, let’s get going. The first thing I’m going to do, since the image is already opened up in Photoshop, is to click on the Black & White icon in the Adjustments panel. Doing this will accomplish three things. It will create the adjustment layer inside the Layers panel, open up the Properties panel and apply the adjustment itself.


As you can see, the image is now black and white.


That’s a job well done, but it doesn’t look like the watches are antiques or convey any sort of a mood. Let’s fix that.

Adding the Tint​

Now that I have that finished, I can go ahead with adding the tint to the image. Doing this is very straightforward. To add a tint, I’ll simply click the Tint check box to activate it.


The check box turns the tint feature on and off and the colored square that’s just to the right of it controls the color. If I were to click on that, the Color Picker would open up, where I could choose any color I want. I may make this one just a hair more orange. Let’s take a look at the image now.


Typically, adding an overall, solid tint doesn’t really make the image look very good. The tint needs to have some definition to it, so the image conveys emotion. Let’s see what I can do with two different adjustments.

Pushing the Black & White Sliders​

Since I haven’t added any definition to this image yet, I think I’ll take this time to do so. To accomplish this, I’ll push each color slider in the Properties panel to the left and to the right, to see the desired effect. I could also use the Targeted Adjustment Tool to help out in this regard, since it’s sometimes a challenge to see (or remember) which color is which. The Targeted Adjustment Tool sits just to the left of the Tint check box. To use it, I would click on it to activate it and then move over and click and drag anywhere on the image. As I did that, I’d see the appropriate slider move for whichever color I happened to be clicking and dragging on. Here are the sliders after I made a few adjustments.


Let’s take a look at the image now.


That’s looking pretty good.

Changing Opacity & Applying a Blending Mode​

I could stick with what I currently have, if that was the look I was going for. If I wanted to lessen the effect of the adjustment layer a bit, I could head into the Layers panel and reduce the opacity somewhat. To do that, I’d click on the Opacity feature and push the slider to the left.


Here’s the image with the opacity reduced to 80%. I actually like this version a lot.


Also, if I wanted to, I could apply a blending mode alone or combine a blending mode with an opacity reduction. Just for fun, I kept the opacity at 80% and then applied the Multiply blending mode.


This version has an eerie look about it. Now that’s got emotion.


This one might be my new favorite.

As you can see, there are tons of options when it comes to applying tints and other effects in Adobe Photoshop. The sky’s the limit when it comes to this. I do hope I clearly explained how to go about applying a Black & White adjustment layer as well as how to use the Tint feature therein. If you have any questions regarding this post, please let me know in the comment section down below. You’re also welcome to ask any question you wish in the new discussion forum. Thanks for reading!


May 7, 2021
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  • #5

How to Add a Tint Over the Black & White Adjustment in Photoshop​

I just wrote a different post and I figured I’d write up a quick summary of it here in the forum. Basically, I explained how to apply a Black & White adjustment layer and then add a tint to that layer, effectively coloring it somewhat. Then, I showed how to change the color of the tint, adjust the definition of the color by pushing the sliders around and how to adjust the opacity of the adjustment layer as a whole. Finally, I added some neat effects via the Multiply blend mode, which was super cool. The final photo looks very interesting. Check it out.


That’s a lot more creative appearing than the original.

Here are the trimmed down instructions for what I did.

– Open your photo into Adobe Photoshop.

– Head up to the Adjustments panel and click the Black & White icon.

– When the Properties panel opens up, click on the Tint check box to apply it.

– To change the color of the tint, click the small colored box that sits to the right of the check box. Edit your color in the Color Picker that appears.

– To add interest, move the color sliders back and forth or use the Targeted Adjustment Brush.

– To adjust opacity to reduce the effect of the adjustment layer and tint, push the Opacity slider to the left in the Layers panel.

– To really change things up and to add cool effects, apply a blend mode in the Layers panel.

Ask me if you don’t understand anything and I’ll do my best to help. Thanks!